[318] Many radioactive hotspots were found outside the evacuation zone, including Tokyo. The area was extensively damaged due to the tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. [324] The plant was shut down as a precaution. Problems in issuing updates also contributed to delays in evacuations. Fishing equipment was scattered on the high cliff above the bay. Because of conservation of angular momentum, such changes of inertia result in small changes to the Earth's rate of rotation. [101], The first sign international researchers had that the earthquake caused such a dramatic change in the Earth's rotation came from the United States Geological Survey which monitors Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) stations across the world. [382], In this national crisis, the Japanese government provided Japanese Sign Language (JSL) interpreting at the press conferences related to the earthquake and tsunami. [100] In Antarctica, the seismic waves from the earthquake were reported to have caused the Whillans Ice Stream to slip by about 0.5 metres (1 ft 8 in). The tsunami resulted in over 340,000 displaced people in the Tōhoku region, and shortages of food, water, shelter, medicine, and fuel for survivors. [301], The Energy Commissioner of the European Union Günther Oettinger addressed the European Parliament on 15 March, explaining that the nuclear disaster was an "apocalypse". [379] Other nationwide Japanese and international TV networks also broadcast uninterrupted coverage of the disaster. The Japanese Foreign Ministry confirmed the deaths of nineteen foreigners. The amplitude of the seismic wave is measured using the JMA magnitude scale, which is similar to Richter magnitude scale. Warnings were issued and evacuations were carr… [325], On 13 March the lowest-level state of emergency was declared regarding the Onagawa plant as radioactivity readings temporarily[326] exceeded allowed levels in the area of the plant. To prevent under-reporting of tsunami heights, early quantitative observation data that are smaller than the expected amplitude will be overridden and the public will instead be told that the situation is under observation. [55] By summer the Vice-minister for Economy, Trade and Industry, the head of the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, and the head of the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy had all lost their jobs. The main iceberg measured 9.5 km × 6.5 km (5.9 mi × 4.0 mi) (approximately the area of Manhattan Island) and about 80 m (260 ft) thick. Approximately 452,000 people were relocated to shelters, and still remain displaced from their destroyed homes. [169] Also, at the slope of a nearby mountain from 400 metres (1,300 ft) away at Aneyoshi fishery port (姉吉漁港) of Omoe peninsula (重茂半島) in Miyako, Iwate, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology found estimated tsunami run up height of 38.9 metres (128 ft). Tsunami waves smashed the coast, causing massive damage and flooding. Some houses along the coast in Jayapura, Indonesia were destroyed. Of those who didn't heed the warning, 49% were hit by the water. [159] The tsunami washed away the sole bridge to Miyatojima, Miyagi, isolating the island's 900 residents. These include Sendai #4, New-Sendai #1 and #2, Haranomachi #1 and #2, Hirono #2 and #4 and Hitachinaka #1. [72] In 2007, the probability of an earthquake with a magnitude of Mw 8.1–8.3 was estimated as 99% within the following 30 years.[73]. The large number of views made the video one of the most popular examples of sonification on the web. Sumitomo Metal Industries could produce up to 500 MW, JFE Steel 400 MW, and Nippon Steel 500 MW of electric power[275] Auto and auto parts makers in Kanto and Tōhoku agreed in May 2011 to operate their factories on Saturdays and Sundays and close on Thursdays and Fridays to help alleviate electricity shortages during the summer of 2011. Odaiba also experienced liquefaction, but damage was minimal. Researchers soon after the full extent of the disaster was known launched a project to gather all digital material relating to the disaster into an online searchable archive to form the basis of future research into the events during and after the disaster. [201][202], The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan reported land subsidence based on the height of triangulation stations in the area measured by GPS as compared to their previous values from 14 April 2011. [205], In Japan, the National Police Agency has confirmed 15,899 deaths,[206] 6,157 injured,[207] and 2,529 people missing[208] across twenty prefectures. https://www.britannica.com/event/Japan-earthquake-and-tsunami-of-2011 [395] Gravimetric data from the quake have been used to create a model for increased warning time compared to seismic models, as gravity fields travel faster than seismic waves. [145][146], Large parts of Kuji and the southern section of Ōfunato including the port area were almost entirely destroyed. [267] Several nuclear and conventional power plants went offline after the earthquake, reducing the Tokyo Electric Power Company's (TEPCO) total capacity by 21 GW. [390][391] The Japanese government had tracked plate movements since 1976 in preparation for the so-called Tokai earthquake, predicted to take place in that region. Fifteen ports were located in the disaster zone. [329], As a result of 7 April aftershock, Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant lost 3 of 4 external power lines and lost cooling function for as much as 80 minutes. Stuart Biggs and Aaron Sheldrick (11 March 2011). [108][109], On 7 December 2012 a large aftershock of magnitude 7.3 Mw caused a minor tsunami, and again on 26 October 2013 a small tsunami was recorded after a 7.1 Mw aftershock. ", Liquefaction driving away Chiba residents, Tokyo Disneyland's parking lot shows the risk of reclaimed land, "Japan Earthquake May Have Shifted Earth's Axis", "Magnitude 7.1 – NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN", "Fresh quake triggers tsunami warning in Japan", "Four dead as new tremor hits Japan disaster zone", "At least 6 killed in new Japan earthquake", "USGS 10-degree Map Centered at 35°N,140°E of earthquakes of magnitude 4.5 or over", "Aftershocks Associated With Impaired Health Caused by the Great East Japan Disaster Among Youth Across Japan: A National Cross-Sectional Survey Interact J Med Res 2013;2(2):e31", "Alert sounded a minute before the tremor struck", 経験則からのずれ ―はじめの数秒と強震動:τc, Pd,スペクトル,簡易震源域推定方法―, "Earthquake Early Warning and Tsunami Warning of JMA for the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake", "Tsunami warnings issued for at least 20 countries after quake", "Distance between Dichato, Chile and Sendai, Japan is 17228km", "Chile Lifts Tsunami Alerts After Japan Quake Spawns Waves", "Chilean site: (Tsunami) waves penetrated 70–100 m in different parts of the country", "Tsunami Information (Estimated Tsunami arrival time and Height)", Helmholtz Research Centre for Geosciences, Japan's tsunami victims only had 15 minutes warning, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Japan tsunami: Toll could rise to more than 1,300, "News: Tsunami rolls through Pacific, Sendai Airport under water, Tokyo Narita closed, Pacific region airports endangered", "10-meter tsunami observed in area near Sendai in Miyagi Pref", "Japan 8.9-magnitude earthquake sparks massive tsunami", "Earthquake, tsunami wreak havoc in Japan", Tsunami hit more than 100 designated evacuation sites, "9,500 unaccounted for in Miyagi's Minamisanriku: local gov't", "東北地方太平洋沖地震を教訓とした地震・津波対策に関する専門調査会中間とりまとめ", U.S. rescue teams find devastation in northern city of Ofunato, "Whole towns gone-no cars or people seen", "Honderden doden in Japanse kuststad (Hundreds dead in Japanese coastal town)" (in Dutch), "Japan army says 300–400 bodies found in Rikuzentakata: Report", Miyagi coastal whaling port pulverized, little more than memory, 'Nothing can prepare you to witness this', Tsunami Slams Japan After Record Earthquake, Killing Hundreds, "Japan disaster: 30 powerful images of the earthquake and tsunami", Survivors on cut-off isle were ready for disaster, Tsunami Information NUMBER 64 (Tsunami Observation), "Tsunami Information NUMBER 64(Tsunami Observations)", "Executive Summary of Urgent Field Survey of Earthquake and Tsunami Disasters by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku Earthquake", "Researchers: 30-meter tsunami in Ofunato", "38-meter-high tsunami triggered by 11 March quake: survey", Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, "東北地方太平洋沖地震による津波被害を踏まえた津波警報の改善の方向性について(最終とりまとめ)", "Evacuate all coastal areas immediately, Hawaii Civil Defense says", "Text of PTWC Pacific-wide tsunami warning", "Tsunami from Japanese quake prompts evacuation of 11,000 residents on Russia's Pacific islands", "Tsunami Warning and Advisory No. Victims aged 60 or older accounted for 65.2% of the deaths, with 24% of total victims being in their 70s. [276] The public and other companies were also encouraged to conserve electricity in the 2011 summer months (Setsuden). [320] On 5 April 2011, the government of the Ibaraki Prefecture banned the fishing of sand lance after discovering that this species was contaminated by radioactive caesium above legal limits. [260][261][262] Reportedly, some locals had attempted to repair leaks in the dam before it completely failed. The GPS station located nearest the epicenter moved almost 4 m (13 ft). The Survey team had several GPS monitors located near the scene of the earthquake. Lubrication, specifically involving clay, is the key to such massive movement, said Frederick Chester, a geophysicist at Texas A&M University in College Station, and lead author of one of the studies. The sea walls in several cities had been built to protect against tsunamis of much lower heights. The Tsukuba control center resumed full operations for the space station's Kibo laboratory and the HTV cargo craft on 21 March 2011. [213], For the purpose of relief fund distribution, an "earthquake-related death" is defined as a case where the earthquake did not directly kill a person, but acted as a contributory factor that indirectly caused their death. The heat build-up caused the generation of hydrogen gas. The aftershocks will thus taper off in time, but could continue for years. [219] 236 children were orphaned in the prefectures of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima by the disaster;[220][221] 1,580 children lost either one or both parents,[222] 846 in Miyagi, 572 in Iwate, and 162 in Fukushima. [95] These are expected changes[40] for an earthquake of this magnitude. [259] Eight people were missing and four bodies were discovered by the morning. [36], The earthquake moved Honshu (the main island of Japan) 2.4 m (8 ft) east, shifted the Earth on its axis by estimates of between 10 cm (4 in) and 25 cm (10 in),[38][39][40] increased earth's rotational speed by 1.8 µs per day,[41] and generated infrasound waves detected in perturbations of the low-orbiting Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer satellite. [285], An analyst estimates that consumption of various types of oil may increase by as much as 300,000 barrels (48,000 m3) per day (as well as LNG), as back-up power plants burning fossil fuels try to compensate for the loss of 11 GW of Japan's nuclear power capacity. The surface energy of the seismic waves from the earthquake was calculated to be 1.9×1017 joules,[84] which is nearly double that of the 9.1 Mw 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that killed 230,000 people. [185] Hawaii estimated damage to public infrastructure alone at US$3 million, with damage to private properties, including resort hotels such as Four Seasons Resort Hualalai, estimated at tens of millions of dollars. The 2011 test was preempted by the real tsunami from Japan. [170] It was also estimated that the tsunami reached heights of up to 40.5 metres (133 ft) in Miyako in Tōhoku's Iwate Prefecture. [235] The single crematorium in Higashimatsushima, for example, could only handle four bodies a day, although hundreds were found there. "We think that's responsible for allowing the incredibly large slip we observed near the trench. [129] The actual height prediction varied, the greatest being for Miyagi at 6 metres (20 ft) high. [215][216][217][218], Save the Children reports that as many as 100,000 children were uprooted from their homes, some of whom were separated from their families because the earthquake occurred during the school day. [173][174], In response to the aforementioned shortcomings in the tsunami warning system, JMA began an investigation in 2011 and updated their system in 2013. [241], The tsunami was reported to have caused several deaths outside Japan. [246], Japan's National Police Agency said on 3 April 2011, that 45,700 buildings were destroyed and 144,300 were damaged by the quake and tsunami. A magnitude-9.0 earthquake struck off Japan’s northeastern coast. It could take months or years to learn how damaging the release of dangerous isotopes has been to human health and food supplies, and to the surrounding countryside. [38] These data are expected to be used in a variety of ways, providing unprecedented information about how buildings respond to shaking, and other effects. [68] Aftershocks follow Omori's law, which states that the rate of aftershocks declines with the reciprocal of the time since the main quake. [257] Eleven airliners bound for Narita were diverted to nearby Yokota Air Base. [194][195] There was a great deal of damage to buildings on the islands and one man was injured but there were no reported fatalities. The motorcycle was among the first items lost in the tsunami to reach the west coast of North America. [322], A fire occurred in the turbine section of the Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake. [55][56] Many electrical generators ran out of fuel. However, the strong quake had exceeded the measurement limit of all of the teleseismometers within Japan, and thus it was impossible to calculate the moment magnitude based on data from those seismometers. [76] The Japanese Meteorological Agency said that the earthquake may have ruptured the fault zone from Iwate to Ibaraki with a length of 500 km (310 mi) and a width of 200 km (120 mi). There are plans to install new teleseismometers with the ability to measure larger earthquakes, which would allow the calculation of a quake's moment magnitude scale in a timely manner. [266], Tōhoku Electric Power was not able to provide the Kanto region with additional power because TEP's power plants were also damaged in the earthquake. [182][183], In the Philippines, waves up to 0.5 m (1 ft 8 in) high hit the eastern seaboard of the country. Now, three papers published today in the journal Science reveal the magnitude 9 earthquake off the east coast of Japan still has the capacity to surprise. Seismologists anticipated a very large quake would strike in the same place as the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake — in the Sagami Trough, southwest of Tokyo. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami traveled as far as 3,000 miles (nearly 5,000 kilometers) to Africa, arriving with sufficient force to kill people and destroy property. Without ventilation, gas accumulated within the reactor containment structures and eventually exploded. [5], The main earthquake was preceded by a number of large foreshocks, with hundreds of aftershocks reported. The earthquake triggered powerful tsunami waves that may have reached heights of up to 40.5 meters (133 ft) in Miyako in Tōhoku's Iwate Prefecture,[34][35] and which, in the Sendai area, traveled at 700 km/h (435 mph)[36] and up to 10 km (6 mi) inland. Most of these deaths occurred during the first six months after the earthquake and the number dropped thereafter, but as time has passed, the number has continued to increase. Kansai Electric Power Company (Kepco) could not share electricity, because its system operated at 60 hertz, whereas TEPCO and TEP operate their systems at 50 hertz; the disparity is due to early industrial and infrastructure development in the 1880s that left Japan without a unified national power grid. Cabinet Office Disaster Management, Government of Japan (2015). 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