English: Hermann Joseph Muller (or H. J. Muller) (December 21, 1890 – April 5, 1967) was an American geneticist, educator, and Nobel laureate best known for his work on the physiological and genetic effects of radiation (X-ray mutagenesis) as well as his outspoken political beliefs. He was the second child of Hermann Joseph Muller, senior, and Frances Louise Lyons. Born: 21-Dec-1890 Birthplace: New York, NY Died: 5-Apr-1967 Location of death: Indianapolis, IN Cause of death: Natural Causes Gender: Male Religion: Atheist Race or Ethnicity: White Sexual orientation: Straight Occupation: Scientist Nationality: United States Executive summary: Genetic effects of radiation American geneticist Hermann Muller… At Rice, Muller taught biology and continued Drosophila lab work. Hermann Joseph Muller (Nueva York, 21 de diciembre de 1890–Indianápolis, 5 de abril de 1967) fue un biólogo y genetista estadounidense.Renovador de la genética.Autor de notables estudios acerca de la acción de los rayos X como productores de mutación la acción de las radiaciones sobre células; por estos trabajos le fue concedido el Premio Nobel de Fisiología o … Sus escritos incluyen Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity (El mecanismo de la herencia mendeliana, junto con otros autores, 1915), Genetics, Medicine and Man (Genética, Medicina y Hombre con otros autores, 1947), Studies in Genetics (Estudios Genéticos, 1962) y numerosos trabajos científicos. [15], In the USSR, Muller supervised a large and productive lab, and organized work on medical genetics. There, at the Institute of Genetics, he imported the basic equipment for a Drosophila lab—including the flies—and set up shop. The Institute was moved to Moscow in 1934, and Muller and his wife were divorced in 1935. Hermann Joseph Muller. [35], His work on the biological effects of radiation exposure is referenced in Rachel Carson's revelatory book, Silent Spring. [31] He retired in 1964. father's ancestors were originally Catholic and came to the United States from Koblenz. In 1923, he began using radium and X-rays,[10] but the relationship between radiation and mutation was difficult to measure because such radiation also sterilized the flies. Significado de Hermann Joseph Muller diccionario. Two years later the family moved to a house in the Bronx, and about 1896 to a cheaper flat in Harlem, which was then a Hermann Joseph (H. Muller's work was increasingly focused on mutation rate and lethal mutations. [8], At Columbia, Muller and his collaborator and longtime friend Edgar Altenburg continued the investigation of lethal mutations. [1]​ Durante los tres años siguientes, como investigador asociado en el Instituto de Genética Animal de la Universidad de Edimburgo. En 1926 consiguió inducir una abundante producción de mjutaciones mediante el uso de los rayos X, técnica que amplió el dominio de los estudios genéticos. Biografía. Especially after the stock market crash, Muller was increasingly pessimistic about the prospects of capitalism. Muller frequently warned of long-term dangers of radioactive fallout from nuclear war and nuclear testing, which resulted in … He also engaged in a debate with the perennial genetics gadfly Richard Goldschmidt over the existence of the gene, for which little direct physical evidence existed at the time. Titular de la cátedra de zoología (1925) de la Universidad de Texas, desde 1933 hasta 1937 trabajó en el Instituto de Genética de la Academia de Ciencias de la URSS en Moscú. [9], Muller taught at the University of Texas from 1920 until 1932. [2] Muller frequently warned of long-term dangers of radioactive fallout from nuclear war and nuclear testing, which resulted in greater public scrutiny of these practices. Desde 1933 hasta 1937 trabajó como genetista en el Instituto de Genética de Moscú, fundando un activo grupo de investigación que se vio afectado por los debates científico-ideológicos en torno a la genética del periodo estalinista (campaña antigenetista de Trofim Lysenko). Muller was critical of the new directions of the eugenics movement (such as anti-immigration), but was hopeful about the prospects for positive eugenics. A clear, quantitative connection between radiation and lethal mutations quickly emerged. Hermann Joseph Muller. genetics, evolution, eugenics.. Muller’s grandfather came to the United States from Germany following the revolution of 1848. Muller frequently warned of the long-term dangers of radioactive fallout from nuclear war and nuclear … Hermann Joseph Muller was born on 21 December 1890 in West 87th Street, New York City, in the predominantly German neighbourhood of Yorkville. In November, Muller carried out two experiments with varied doses of X-rays, the second of which used the crossing over suppressor stock ("ClB") he had found in 1919. His discovery of artificially induced mutations in genes had far-reaching consequences, and he was "[17], Muller, with about 250 strains of Drosophila, moved to Edinburgh in September 1937, after brief stays in Madrid and Paris. The Nazi movement was precipitating the rapid emigration of scientific talent from Germany, and Muller was particularly opposed to the politics of National Socialism. At 16, he entered Columbia College. Titular de la cátedra de zoología formado en 1925, en la Universidad de Texas, desde 1933 hasta 1937 trabajó en el Instituto de Genética de la Academia de Ciencias de la URSS en Moscú. Estudió en la Universidad de Columbia. Helen's mother was Dorothea Kantorowicz Muller (1909-1986), Hermann's second wife. Hermann Joseph Muller (Nueva York, 1890 - Indianápolis, Estados Unidos, 1967) Biólogo estadounidense. Hermann Joseph Muller, nacido el 21 de diciembre de 1890, en Nueva York, Estados Unidos fue un genetista estadounidense recordado por su demostración de que las mutaciones y los cambios hereditarios pueden ser causados por los rayos X que golpean los genes y los cromosomas de las células vivas.Su descubrimiento de mutaciones inducidas artificialmente … La acción de las radiaciones ionizantes sobre las células. [32] The Drosophila basic units of inheritance, their chromosomal arms, are named "Muller elements" in Muller's honor. [36], Hermann J. Muller speaking at the 1952 World Science Fiction Convention, "The 'Geneticists Manifesto'," originally published in. Muller, Hermann Joseph (1890-1967). Muller and many of the Russian genetics community did what they could to oppose Trofim Lysenko and his Larmarckian evolutionary theory, but Muller was soon forced to leave the Soviet Union after Stalin read a translation of his eugenics book and was "displeased by it, and...ordered an attack prepared against it. [7], In 1914, Julian Huxley offered Muller a position at the recently founded William Marsh Rice Institute, now Rice University; he hurried to complete his Doctor of philosophy degree and moved to Houston for the beginning of the 1915-1916 academic year (his degree was issued in 1916). [29] He served as president of the American Humanist Association from 1956 to 1958. However, he also worked as an adviser in the Manhattan Project (though he did not know that was what it was), as well as a study of the mutational effects of radar. Scientists similar to or like Hermann Joseph Muller. [16] By 1936, however, Joseph Stalin's repressive policies and the rise of Lysenkoism was making the USSR an increasingly problematic place to live and work. From his first semester, he was interested in biology; he became an early convert of the Mendelian-chromosome theory of heredity — and the concept of genetic mutations and natural selection as the basis for evolution. Most of his work involved further explorations of genetics and radiation. Las investigaciones de Muller en el campo de la genética, que inició en 1911, se basaron fundamentalmente en la cría experimental de la mosca de la fruta Drosophila. Muller earned a bachelor of arts degree in 1910. [24], Muller's opinions on the effect of radiation on mutagenesis, however, had been criticized by some scientists; geneticist James F. Crow called Muller's view "alarmist" and wrote that it created in the public "an irrational fear of low-level radiation relative to other risks". Usredotočio je svoje istraživanje na gene i njihove mutacije i upozorio svijet na opasnosti od zračenja. In his early years at Texas, Muller's Drosophila work was slow going; the data from his mutation rate studies were difficult to interpret. With the Castle Bravo fallout controversy in 1954, the issue became even more urgent. American geneticist, educator, and Nobel laureate best known for his work on the physiological and genetic effects of radiation (mutagenesis), as well as his outspoken political beliefs. Introducción. Hermann Joseph Muller Biography, Life, Interesting Facts. Muller (21. joulukuuta 1890 – 5. huhtikuuta 1967) oli yhdysvaltalainen geneetikko ja Nobelin lääketieteen palkinnon voittaja, joka tutki röntgensäteilyn fysiologisia ja geneettisiä vaikutuksia. Buscar en este sitio. He focused his research on genes and their mutations and warned the world about the dangers of radiation. [30] The American Mathematical Society selected him as its Gibbs Lecturer for 1958. In this period, he also became involved with eugenics and human genetics. [citation needed] In 1955, Muller was one of 11 prominent intellectuals to sign the Russell-Einstein Manifesto, the upshot of which was the first 1957 Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, which addressed the control of nuclear weapons. Hermann Joseph Muller The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946 Born: 21 December 1890, New York, NY, USA Died: 5 April 1967, Indianapolis, IN, USA Affiliation at the time of the award: Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA The primary method for detecting such mutations was to measure the sex ratios of the offspring of female flies. [22] In Muller's Nobel Prize lecture, he argued that no threshold dose of radiation existed that did not produce mutagenesis, which led to the adoption of the linear no-threshold model of radiation on cancer risks. Muller frequently warned of long-term dangers of radioactive fallout from nuclear war and nuclear testing, which resulted in … [33], H. J. Muller and science-fiction writer Ursula Le Guin were second cousins; his father (Hermann J. Muller Sr.) and her father's mother (Johanna Muller Kroeber) were siblings, the children of Nicholas Müller, who immigrated to the United States in 1848, and at that time dropped the umlaut from his name. In 1952, nuclear fallout became a public issue; since Operation Crossroads, more and more evidence had been leaking out about radiation sickness and death caused by nuclear testing. There he completed his eugenics book, Out of the Night, the main ideas of which dated to 1910. Muller's publication rate decreased greatly in this period, from a combination of lack of lab workers and experimentally challenging projects. During his career, he focused on understanding genetics and gene mutations, thereby, laying a conceptual and empirical foundation for modern molecular biology. AKA Hermann Joseph Muller. Hermann Joseph Muller (December 21, 1890 – April 5, 1967) was an American geneticist, educator, and Nobel laureate best known for his work on the physiological and genetic effects of radiation (mutagenesis), as well as his outspoken political beliefs. [26][27] It has been argued that Muller's opinion was not supported by studies on the survivors of the atomic bombings, or by research on mice,[28] and that he ignored another study that contradicted the linear no-threshold model he supported, thereby affecting the formulation of policy that favored this model. For other people with the same name, see Hermann Müller (disambiguation). ", "Muller's Nobel lecture on dose–response for ionizing radiation:ideology or science? Realizó importantes estudios acerca de la acción de los rayos X, descubrimiento por el cual le fue otorgado el Premio Nobel de Fisiología y Medicina en 1946. Hermann Joseph Muller Herman Joseph Muller (o H. J. Muller ) (el 21 de diciembre de 1890 – el 5 de abril de 1967) era un genetista americano , educador y laureado Nobel mejor conocido por su trabajo de los efectos fisiológicos y genéticos de la radiación (radiografíe mutagenesis) así como sus creencia políticas abiertas. [19], When Muller returned to the United States in 1940, he took an untenured research position at Amherst College, in the department of Otto C. Glaser. Hermann Joseph Muller, American geneticist best remembered for his demonstration that mutations and hereditary changes can be caused by X rays striking the genes and chromosomes of living cells. Definición de Hermann Joseph Muller en el Diccionario de español en línea. Muller frequently warned of the long-term dangers of radioactive fallout from nuclear war and nuclear … Muller, Hermann Joseph (mŭl`ər), 1890–1967, American geneticist and educator, b. His father, for whom he was named, was to train in the law, but instead had to take over the family business of manufacturing bronze artworks. In 1911-1912, he studied metabolism at Cornell University, but remained involved with Columbia. [12], In 1926, a series of major breakthroughs began. Another cousin was Herbert J. Muller, whose grandfather Otto was another son of Nicholas and a sibling of Hermann Sr. and Johanna. traducir Hermann Joseph Muller significado Hermann Joseph Muller traducción de Hermann Joseph Muller Sinónimos de Hermann Joseph Muller, antónimos de Hermann Joseph Muller. Aportaciones a la humanidad. theory of mutationism: "balanced lethals" allowed the accumulation of recessive mutations, and rare crossing over events resulted in the sudden expression of these hidden traits. Hermann Müller, statesman and leader of the German Social Democratic Party (SPD) who was twice chancellor of coalition governments during the Weimar Republic. His son, David E. Muller, professor emeritus of mathematics and computer science at the University of Illinois and at New Mexico State University, died in 2008 in Las Cruces, New Mexico. Hermann Joseph Muller (Nueva York, 21 de diciembre de 1890–Indianápolis, 5 de abril de 1967) fue un biólogo y genetista estadounidense. [14], In September 1932, Muller moved to Berlin to work with the Russian expatriate geneticist Nikolay Timofeeff-Ressovsky; a trip intended as a limited sabbatical stretched into an eight-year, five-country journey. [20] Here, he lived in a Dutch Colonial Revival house in Bloomington's Vinegar Hill neighborhood. In the following years, he began publicizing the likely dangers of radiation exposure in humans (such as physicians who frequently operate X-ray equipment or shoe sellers who radiated their customers' feet). Para 1945, luego de 5 años de rondar por Europa, huyendo de los conflictos de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, Muller finalmente logra encontrar un puesto permanente y se asienta como profesor en la facultad de … Some of his visiting lab members were from the USSR, and he helped edit and distribute an illegal leftist student newspaper, The Spark. Muller's discovery created a media sensation after he delivered a paper entitled "The Problem of Genetic Modification" at the Fifth International Congress of Genetics in Berlin; it would make him one of the better-known public intellectuals of the early 20th century. [3] As an adolescent, Muller attended a Unitarian church and considered himself a pantheist; in high school, he became an atheist. [11] In 1932, at the Third International Eugenics Congress, Muller gave a speech and stated, "eugenics might yet perfect the human race, but only in a society consciously organized for the common good. Revisa las traducciones de 'Hermann Joseph Muller' en italiano. Hermann Muller gana el premio Nobel de Fisiología/Medicina Muller recibiendo el Premio Nobel de Fisiología-Medicina, 1946 / Crédito: Fundación Nobel. In 1933, Muller and his wife reconciled, and their son David E. Muller and she moved with Hermann to Leningrad. Hermann Joseph Muller. Hermann Joseph Muller, generally known as H. J. Muller, (21 December 1890 – 5 April 1967) was an American geneticist, educator, and Nobel Prize winner. Born (1890-12-21) December 21, … Consulta los ejemplos de traducción de Hermann Joseph Muller en las frases, escucha la … Muller and many other scientists pursued an array of political activities to defuse the threat of nuclear war. In his experiments, Muller exposed fruit flies () to x-rays, mated the flies, and observed the number of mutations in the offspring. He carried out a study of twins separated at birth that seemed to indicate a strong hereditary component of I.Q. [21], In 1946, Muller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, "for the discovery that mutations can be induced by X-rays". Genetics, and especially the physical and physiological nature of the gene, was becoming a central topic in biology, and X-ray mutagenesis was a key to many recent advances, among them George Beadle and Edward Tatum's work on Neurospora that established in 1941 the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis. Hermann Joseph Muller (or H. J. Muller) (December 21, 1890 – April 5, 1967) was an American geneticist, educator, and Nobel laureate best known for his work on the physiological and genetic effects of radiation (X-ray mutagenesis) as well as his outspoken political beliefs. New York City, grad. Share. He also began courting Dorothea "Thea" Kantorowicz, a German refugee; they were married in May 1939. Aportaciones a la humanidad. Hermann Joseph Muller synonyms, Hermann Joseph Muller pronunciation, Hermann Joseph Muller translation, English dictionary definition of Hermann Joseph Muller. Indiana Historic Sites and Structures Inventory.

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