Several genetic determinants of these characteristics have been identified, including the Q gene, which encodes an AP2-like transcription factor. II. Genet Res Crop Evol 46:267–271, Simons KJ, Fellers JP, Trick HN et al (2006) Molecular characterization of the major wheat domestication gene, Singh MP (1969) Some radiation induced changes at ‘, Sood S, Kuraparthy V, Bai GH, Gill BS (2009) The major threshability genes soft glume (, Syouf M, Abu-Irmaileh BE, Valkoun J, Bdour S (2006) Introgression from durum wheat landraces in wild emmer wheat (, Taenzler B, Esposti RF, Vaccino P et al (2002) Molecular linkage map of einkorn wheat: mapping of storage-protein and soft-glume genes and bread-making quality QTLs. It is estimated that wheat provides about 20% of the energy in global diets and about the same percentage of protein (WHEAT, 2014). Some scholars argue for a fairly rapid process, of a few centuries; while others argue that the process from cultivation to domestication took up to 5,000 years. Handb Pflanzenzücht, 2nd Edition, 2:164–187, Sharma HC, Waines JG (1980) Inheritance of tough rachis in crosses of, Simonetti MC, Bellomo MP, Laghetti G et al (1999) Quantitative trait loci influencing free-threshing habit in tetraploid wheats. Wheat domestication involves a limited number of chromosome regions, or domestication syndrome factors, though many relevant quantitative trait loci have been detected. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Although domestication of plants and crops cultivated for consumption has been carried on for 11,000 years, this figure pales in comparison with the seven million years humans fed themselves by hunting wild animals and eating wild plants. The studied traits include brittle rachis, heading date, plant height, grain size, yield, and yield components. It is known that AP2 factors can be regulated by the miR172 miRNA, and that Q bears a mutation in the miR172 binding site, but how this putative regulation affects the phenotypes associated with domestication has been unclear. Z. Pflanzenzücht 41:205–226, Lelley T, Stachel M, Grausgruber H, Vollmann J (2000) Analysis of relationships between, Li WL, Gill BS (2006) Multiple pathways for seed shattering in the grasses. Wheat has not dramaticly changed its DNA status for over 10,000 years. At Jericho, Netiv Hagdud, and Gilgal (in the Jordan Basin), and Aswad (near Damascus), domesticated einkorn, emmer, and barley appear between 8000 and 7700 B.C. Paleorient 10:61–70 (, Kuckuck H (1959) Neuere Arbeiten zur Entstehung der hexaploiden Kulturweizen. Here, I review historical and recent findings that have shaped our current understanding of wheat domestication. Not logged in Several regions were first movers in developing independent d… parviglumis) in central America at least as early 9,000 years ago. These early domesticates were staple crops of early farmers for several thousand years before being replaced by free-threshing wheats. In: Bonjean AP, Angus WJ (eds) The world wheat book. In: Padulosi S, Hammer K, Heller J (eds) Hulled wheats, promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops 4: proceedings of the first international workshop on hulled wheats. Genome 36:21–31, Dvorak J, Luo MC (2001) Evolution of free-threshing and hulled forms of, Dvorak J, Luo MC, Yang ZL, Zhang HB (1998) The structure of the, Dvorak J, Akhunov ED, Akhunov AR et al (2006) Molecular characterization of a diagnostic DNA marker for domesticated tetraploid wheat provides evidence for gene flow from wild tetraploid wheat to hexaploid wheat. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Ltd, London, pp 1–248, Riley R, Unrau J, Chapman V (1958) Evidence on the origin of the B genome of wheat. Concluding remarks on the process of wheat evolution. Euphytica 94:119–124, Chalupska D, Lee HY, Faris JD et al (2008), Chen Q-F, Yen C, Yang J-L (1998) Chromosome location of the gene for brittle rachis in the Tibetan weed race of common wheat. Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. The Q gene governs the free-threshing character and square spike phenotype. Linnean Society, London, pp 37–59 (Linnean Special Issue 3), Nesbitt M, Samuel D (1996) From staple crop to extinction? The domestication of wheat provides an example. Bull Plant Industry, US Dept Agriculture, Washington, DC No. One of the ongoing arguments about wheat is the length of time it took for the domestication process to complete. Willd. The assembly enabled genome-wide genetic diversity analyses revealing the changes imposed by thousands of years of empirical selection and breeding. II. 207-221. June 2010; DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-12425-9_8. Please log in to add an alert for this article. In: Pogna NE, Romano M, Pogna EA, Galterio G (eds) Proceedings of the 10th International Wheat Genetics Symposium, Paestum, Italy. Allopolyploidization, mutations in genes governing threshability and other domestication related traits, and interspecific gene flow led to the formation of today’s economically important bread wheat. Advances in archaeology will likely address our unanswered questions in the Near East also involved domestication... The future without the transition of human behavior from hunter-gatherers to farmers wheats generally have the hypermorphic allele! Jr, Wet MJ de, Price EG ( 1973 ) Comparative evolution of cereals a! 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